Water Soluble Vitamin
The Water Soluble are B-Complex and Vitamin C. Being water soluble, they are easily absorbed and the excess consumed is excreted in the urine. They are not stored in the body.
It discovered eleven water-soluble B-complex Vitamin Of which eight are considered essential for humans. They differ from each other in their structure , distribution in foods, stability and symptoms that result from their deficiency. They are
- Thiamine (Vit. B1)
- Biboflavin (Vit. B2)
- Pyridoxine(Vit. B6)
- Pantothenic acid
- Folic Acid
- Cryanocobalamin (Vit. B12)
These eight Vitamin are grouped together because their functions are closely related. The remaining three B-Complex Vits. Namely para-aminobenzoic acid , choline, and inositol play an active role in cell metabolism but the diet and intestinal synthesis can make good this requirement.
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
Vitamin B1 is very unstable at high temperature. It is particularly essential for carbohydrate metabolism. After absorption it is carried to the liver where it is phosphorylated. Total body concentration is 25 mgm, the excess is excreted in urine.
Thiamine performs the following functions .
- Thiamine functions mainly as a co-enzyme , thiamine pyrophosphare , which is required in the breakdown of glucose to yield energy.
- It helps to maintain a healthy nervous system.
- It is required for normal appetite and digestion.
Foods rich in protein such as pork, liver, pulses, groundnut and eggs are good sources. Wholegrain and enriched cereals parboiled rice, unpolished rice and sprouted pulses contribute Vitamin B1. Soya bean is a rich source.
It causes symptoms of peripheral neuritis , mental depression , disturbed general metabolism with loss of weight. The deficiency affects gastro-intestinal tract , cardiovascular system and peripheral nervous system. Severe Vitamin B1 deficiency produces the disease called Beri-Beri so named as the patient suffering from it develops sheep like galt.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Vitmain B2 is a yellow fluorescent pigment. It is heat stable but is readily destroyed by ultraviolet rays.
Liver , meat extract, eggs, kidneys, yeast , milk , cheese.
- Concerned with protein , carbohydrate and fat metabolism.
- It is an essential growth factor.
- It is associated with tissue repairs.
- It converts tryptophan into niacin.
- In cells it is found in form of FAD or FMN>
- It is associated as coenzyme in tissue oxidation and respiration.
- Growth is retarded.
- The skin develops cracks and fissures, especially at corners of the mouth
- Eyes turn red due to vascularization of cornea , which causes photophobla. Corneal ulcers result in corneal opacities. The tendency to cataract formation increases.
- The nerves develop myelin degeneration.
- Swelling of lips with cheilosis
It is also called Pellagra preventing factor. It is a white crystalline water soluble Vitamin And also obtained from tryptophan with the help of Riboflavin. One part of niacin is formed from 60 parts of tryptophan . in body fluids niacin is converted to nicotinamide.
Whole meal flour , milk , meat extract , liver, kidneys, eggs.
- It is concerned with H+ ions donor acceptor system in the body.
- It tends to lower serum cholesterol levels.
- Nicotinamide acts as coenzyme in metabolism of fat , protein and carbohydrate.
It is seen in low protein or maize based diets. Pellagra, which means rough skin. Deficiency begins with weakness, headache , loss of appetite and weight and a sore and swollen tongue.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin)
In addition to its intake with diet, the pyridoxin is also synthesized in the intestine.
Liver , meat , fish , molasses , leguminous plants, cabbage.
- Essential for normal aminoacid metabolism.
- Associated with Hb synthesis.
- Associated with enzyme activites in brain.
- Concerned with decarboxylation of serotin.
- Acts as coenzyme in linoleic acid metabolism.
In human beings is very rare. It has however been observed in patients on prolonged INH therapy and use of oral contraceptives , also in connection with cycoloserine therapy and in some rare cases of pregnancy.
It is along with Vitamin B12, folic acid is of importance in haemopoiesis. Structurally it is peteroyl monoglutamic acid made from pteroric acid and glutamic acid. It metabolically activated in jejunum.
Liver, kidney , green leafy vegetables , whole pulses and yeast and in fermented food such as idli , dhokla and dosa. Some bacteria present in the intestinal tract are capable of synthesizing the Vitamin.
In order to perform its functions , folic acid needs to be converted into its active form. Vitamin C is needed for this conversion.
Its results in megaloblastic anemia which is common in underdeveloped countries among the vulnerable age group. In folic acid deficiency the bone marrow releases large nucleated cells into the circulation.
It is also called anti-pernicious anemia factor. It remains stored in the liver, where its half life is 12 months . that is why pernicious anemia develops only after prolonged Vitamin B12 deficiency.
Liver, meat, fish , eggs , milk. In the stomach Vitamin B12 if released from food and forms a complex with intrinstic factor from gastric mucosa. This Vitamin B12 Intrinsic factor complex as such is absorbed, after which B12 Intrinsic factor complex as such is absorbed , after which B12 is released and enters circulation.
- It helps folic acid in the synthesis and maturation of RBCs.
- It is essential for formation of myelin sheath around nerve fibres.
It is also known as the fresh fruit and vegetable Vitamin. It was discovered as an acid in Lime Juice. It is white , crystalline , water soluble, strong reducing agent , easily lost by action of heat, except man , many mammals can synthesize Vitamin C in the body.
Green Vegetables , fresh fruits , amla , germinating cereals. Rose lips are the richest sources of Vitamin C.
- Making haemoglobin by helping in absorption of iron from food.
- Healing of wounds and fractures.
- Increasing resistance to infections and fevers.
- Proper growth during periods of increased need or during rapid growth.
- As an antioxidant ,like Vitamin E , it prevents the oxidation of Vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids.