Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. Nutrition includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion.The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses.
History of human nutrition
Hippocrates lived about 400 BC, and Galen and the understanding of Nutrition followed him for centuries.The first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy, later found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus. In China, the concept of “qi” developed which actually means energy which we eventually get from the diet we eat and it was also related to spirit or “wind”.Food was classified into “hot” (for example, meats, blood, ginger, and hot spices) and “cold” (green vegetables) in China, India, Malaya, and Persia . Humours developed perhaps first in China alongside qi which was actually a system of medicine . Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements (Wu Xing: fire, water, earth, wood, and metal).
Around 1770, Antoine Lavoisier discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. Called the most fundamental chemical discovery of the 18th century,Lavoisier discovered the principle of conservation of mass. His ideas made the phlogiston theory of combustion obsolete.
Classified of Nutrition
It is broadly classified into two main categories i.e. macronutrients and micronutrients.
Why Need of Nutrition
The most important consideration in menu planning is to ensure that the meal fulfills the Nutrient needs of the individual consuming the meal. For example if the meal is planned for an industrial worker it must meet the recommended dietary allowances for that age group. Foods from all basis food groups should be included in each meal so that the meal is balanced and nutritionally adequate. The Need of Nutrition is for our healthy lifestyle. It means to say that good nutrition your body gets all the nutrients vitamin , mineral and body need to function properly. It providing us energy and growth and substances necessary to regulate chemical process. It has reduce your risk of chronic diseases and promote overall health. Good Nutrition can help to reduce High Blood Pressure , Lower high cholesterol , diabetes , stroke and Osteoporosis. It can help to improve your energy level , improve your recover from illness and improve your fight off illness.
The main features of the diet are as follows :-
- Food should be easy to chew , liquid preparations should be included in each meal as they are light and easy to digest.
- Hot meals should be served attractively as appetite is low.
- Five small meals should be preferred to a three meal pattern.
- Gas forming foods and strongly flavoured vegetables such as Bengal gram , cauliflower , cabbage and onion should be avoided.
- Low calorie density and high satiety value foods should be included.